The history and the development of  atomic energy can be explained by the following points:

  • The science of atomic radiation, atomic change and nuclear fission was developed from 1895 to 1945,

  • Over 1939-45, most development was focused on the atomic bomb.

  • From 1945 attention was given to use atomic energy in controlled fashion for naval propulsion and for making electric energy.

  • Since 1956 the prime focus of atomic energy is on the technological evolution of reliable nuclear power plants.

 

Development of  Atomic energy from 1895 to 1932

  • In 1895, Rontgen’s discovered  X-rays, scientists unravelled the structure of the atom, revealing the electron and proton.

  • During this period they also discovered radioactivity.

  • Medical applications for radioactivity soon appeared.

 

 

Development of  Atomic energy from  1932 to 1939

  • The final major component of the atom, the neutron, was discovered, in 1932.

  • In 1938 fission of uranium atoms by neutrons was carried out in Germany.

  • The atomic energy associated with fission opened the path for powerful weapons.

 

Development of  Atomic energy from  1940 to 1943

  • The scientific and technical foundations for producing an atomic bomb was started in this year.

 

Development of  Atomic energy from  1943 to 1947

  • Domestic and international control of atomic energy became a critical post war issue. 

  • The Atomic Energy Commission was formed and took over control of all aspects of atomic energy in the US in 1947. 

  • Citizens of all nations realised power of atomic energy as massive threat as well as a source of useful energy for mankind.

 

Development of  Atomic energy from  1947 to 1962

  • An atomic bomb was exploded in 1949 by Soviet Union

  • US and other nations envied the peaceful use of atomic energy for electric power generation and medical applications.

  • During this period the US proposed a program to harness atomic energy for peaceful purposes.

  • France become the nuclear power in 1960.

 

Development of  Atomic energy from  1963 to 2003

  • Development of nuclear weapons by India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea further alarmed the world.

  • SALT I was signed in 1972 followed by SALT II in 1979.

  • By 2001, the acquisition of fissionable and radioactive materials by terrorist groups also became a major threat to world order.

 

Important events in history of  atomic energy

  • In 1780 German scientist Martin Heinrich Klaproth discovers Uranium. That becomes the keystone of atomic energy.

  • In march 1986 French scientist Antoine Becquerel discovers radioactivity.

  • In 1934 Italian scientist Enrico Fermi shows that neutrons can split atoms.

  • In July 1939 Enrico Fermi and Leo Sziland propose a idea of nuclear reactor that uses Uranium fuel.

  • In December 1951, First electric energy from a nuclear power plant was produced in Arco,Idaho. It powers  four electric bulbs.

  • Finally world’s first commercial nuclear power plant opens in obninsk soviet union. It has 6 megawatt capacity.

 

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