What is energy for: Uses of geothermal energy in different areas:
Geothermal energy has a major contribution in electricity production and it can provide large amount also without any harm to the environment.
An amount of about $280 million per year is the economic benefit of the U.S government by using geothermal energy.
Nearly 450 geothermal projects are under construction in U.S to meet out the large electricity needs.
The basic type of geothermal plants from which electricity is produced is as follows.
Dry steam plants: The steam is collected by drilling wells from 7,000 to 10,000 feet deep into the earth.
The steam which is produced under ground is directly used to turn the turbines to produce electricity through the pipes.
In 1904, first geothermal plant was built in Tuscany, Italy where natural steam erupted from the earth.
Flash steam plants: In this geothermal plant, high pressure hot water is taken from deep inside the earth and this is converted in steam to run the generator turbines.
When the temperature of the steam cools down it condenses into water and is injected back into the ground for further use.
Wairakei was the first plant to use this technology.
Binary power plants: In these power plants the geothermal hot water transfers its heat to a secondary liquid which gets vaporized and this vapor is used to turn the turbines to generate power.
The vaporized liquid is reused by condensing it.
Russia was the pioneer in introducing binary power plants in the year 1967.
New Zealand has the world’s largest binary power plant. The 100 MW Ngatamariki power stations is the 3 project in the country.
The thermal efficiency of this type plant is about 10–13%.
Hybrid power plants: These power plants use both binary and flash techniques simultaneously.
Interesting facts about usage of Geo thermal energy:
New Zealand was the second major industrial producer of geothermal electricity when it commissioned Wairakei station, in 1958.
The geothermal power stations in New Zealand save almost 3 million tons of carbon emission every year.
33 geothermal plants are installed in California that generates almost 90 percent of the nation’s geothermal electricity.
14 geothermal plants where put up in Nevada
- Electricity is now being produced using geothermal energy in about 21 countries