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What do you think will happen if an electrical rod is placed in a beaker of water? After a while, the water will heat up. Electrical energy is converted into heat energy. But how? The rod has a voltage running through it and generates current in its wire. Electrons while collide with the atoms in the wire, transfer energy from the moving electrons to the metal lattice in the wire. The atoms of this metal lattice vibrate due to the extra gain of this energy. And they vibrate more and more as they gain energy and heat energy is produced.
As the name suggest, conversion of electrical energy to heat energy is nothing but converting one form of energy to another form.
If a device has an input as electrical energy and it gives output as heat then this where is conversion takes place.
The energy conversion can be easily explained with a simple example. You can even try it in your home. Just take an electrical bulb and plug its socket. Now turn on the light for 5 -10 min. Now turn off the light and touch the electric bulb, you can feel the heat in the electrical bulb. It’s because electrical energy is converted into heat energy and light energy in electric bulb.
Now just take a coil heater. Take a bucket full of cold water and you can even check its temperature using thermometer. Now plug the coil heater socket for 10 min. Now unplug the socket and check the temperature of water in the bucket. You can see the raise of temperature in the thermometer. The question is how the temperature increases?? It’s because of the electrical energy conversion to heat energy.
Electric heating is any process in which electrical energy is converted to heat. Common applications include space heating, cooking, water heating and industrial processes.
An electric heater is an electrical appliance that converts electrical energy into heat. The heating element inside every electric heater is simply an electrical resistor, and works on the principle of Joule heating: an electric current through a resistor converts electrical energy into heat energy. Most modern electric heating devices use nichrome wire as the active element. The heating element depicted on the right uses nichrome wire supported by heat resistant, refractory, electrically insulating ceramic.